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TitleUrban sanitation in Zimbabwe and the relation to environmental pollution
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication1997
AuthorsMudege, NR, Taylor, P
Pagination33 p. : 2 fig., 13 tab.
Date Published1997-03-01
PublisherInstitute of Water and Sanitation Development
Place PublishedHarare, Zimbabwe
Keywordscab97/4, case studies, constraints, disposal, financing, institutional framework, legislation, pa, pollution, sanitation, sdiafr, sdisan, sdiurb, urban areas, wastewater treatment, zimbabwe

This paper looks at urban sanitation problems in urban Zimbabwe. It is based on interviews, literature research and site visits to Chegutu, Marondera, Gutu Mupandawana and Mutare. Unlike in other parts of Africa, the problem of urban sanitation in Zimbabwe is not primarily one of access to services (although 28.8% of urban households have to share a flush toilet) but one of disposal of the effluent. The majority of off-site treatment systems use oxidation ponds but there is increasing adoption of more advanced treatment systems. Treated effluent is disposed to natural water bodies or used in irrigation. Problems include: poor effluent quality; the lack of a technical support agency; reduced budgetary allocations of the Central Rates Fund (CRF) which builds, owns, operates and maintains sanitation systems in small urban centres; underfinancing of the operation and maintenance of sanitation systems; the poor condition of 45% of the wastewater treatment plants; no fixed schedule of examination of treatment plants; indiscriminate granting and renewal of exemption permits to allow temporary discharge of inadequately treated waste; overloading of the majority of sewerage reticulation systems; lack of pollution control regulations and lack of enforcement; lack of regulations requiring that wastewater treatment plants are operated by qualified or trained operators; and the lack of a regulatory act governing the performance, standard of operation, personnel qualifications, health and safety standards for wastewater treatment works.

Notes39 ref.
Custom 1305.40, 824



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