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The Transform WASH Activity in Ethiopia has significantly contributed to advancing market-based sanitation approaches and promoting gender equality and female empowerment.

TitlePerformance evaluation of the USAID/Ethiopia Transform Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) activity : final report
Publication TypeProgress Report
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsCaplan, K, Assefa, DD, Mussa, M, Meleskachew, A, Legesse, Y., Shebru, B, Cord, C, Goldberg, E, Henry, L, van der Voorden, C, Chennuri, S, Israel, M
Paginationix, 50 p. : 10 fig., 1 map, 2 tab.
Date Published01/2023
PublisherUSAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) #2 Activity
Place PublishedWashington, DC, USA
Publication LanguageEnglish
Keywordsdemand creation, evaluation, household surveys

This report provides the findings from a performance evaluation, carried out by Tetra Tech, of the Transform WASH Activity to understand key contributions to advancing market-based sanitation (MBS) approaches in Ethiopia. The performance evaluation sought to understand the effectiveness of demand creation activities, approaches to advancing MBS, Transform WASH contributions to good governance, and how gender equality and female empowerment were incorporated into the design and implementation of the activity. A household survey brought quantitative data to inform the qualitative assessment.

The evaluation findings confirmed that the USAID-funded activity has made much appreciated and significant contributions to advancing MBS as a bona fide approach in Ethiopia. Through advocacy and convening efforts, a close working relationship with government, and shared constructive research and analysis, Transform WASH has shifted skeptical attitudes toward MBS and helped shape MBS-related Government of Ethiopia policies and approaches. Through learning by doing, Transform WASH has provided a practical demonstration of the National MBS Implementation Guidelines. 

In particular, the activity has facilitated the manufacturing and distribution of a wide range of sanitation products that are appreciated by consumers and created greater linkages across the service delivery supply chain. It has enhanced mechanisms to increase access to sanitation products and services including for low-income  households. Through Transform WASH, business partners have developed knowledge and skills to expand their customer base, diversify income sources, provide job opportunities for others in the community, and develop into profitable enterprises. The activity has demonstrated that women can be successful in this conventionally  male-dominated construction sector. [author abstract]


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