Rwanda adopted the District-Wide Approach in 2016. The District-Wide Approach (DWA) seeks to support the achievement of universal and sustainable access to water and sanitation services, by strengthening the enabling environment and focusing on the district, as the service authority.
Under the Agenda for Change umbrella, Aguaconsult, IRC, WaterAid and Water for People have been supporting the piloting of the DWA in five of Rwanda's districts between 2017 and 2019.
The Approach has been applied in the district of Bugesera, Gicumbi, Karongi, Ngororero and Nyamagabe. For the past three years, these districts have established local government as a unit of analysis and work, incorporated this integrated planning approach into national WASH policies and funding strategies. For an overview of the project and its developments, see the documents below:
For a summary of the initiative see the learning note: Application of the District-Wide Approach in 5 pilot districts of Rwanda
For a more detailed process documentation read: The District-Wide Approach: Progress review from its application in five districts in Rwanda
In support of the DWA in Rwanda a suite of tools have been developed to i) calculate the capital replacement costs of existing services and ii) feed into the broader cost calculations required to achieve the district's vision of achieving universal and sustainable services. The implementation of the DWA in the districts consists of five generic steps, under which a number of activities are to be undertaken and related outputs are generated. The final output of the process of which a consolidated WASH plan. Below are a collection of some of tools, guidelines and relevant resources:
Assessment phase tool guides
Tools used in the partner districts
|Services accessed||Initially based on AKVO FLOW survey and then the national Management Information System (MIS), based on household survey questionnaire||Database with calculated service levels per household||Database containing data on: population, access and service levels. Can be aggregated to village, district or national level||Guidance provided by MIS|
|Assets||Initially based on AKVO FLOW survey and then the WASAC Excel-based asset registry||Database with information on composition, condition and age of all water related infrastructure assets in a district||Asset registry with details on existing water supply asset components, in terms of age, condition and level of priority for maintenance activities||Guidance from WASAC on asset registry tools|
|Capacity||Excel-based district capacity assessment tool||Excel sheet with information on the institutional capacity of the district government||Sheet which captures existing district skills against core functions; municipal WASH budget and time dedication against key activities. It also captures training needs.||User's guide for the District Capacity Assessment tool|
Costing and financing phase tool guide
|Capital Maintenance Expenditure needs||From the asset inventory, systems requiring major repairs because of their age and/or condition are identified. These repairs are matched with costs, calculated using pre-identified unit costs per asset component and condition. The costs are then spread costs over a 10-year time span.||CapManEx calculator|
included in the asset
|Guidance for Using the Capital Maintenance Expenditures Tool|
The realisation of district plans is simply not possible without strong financial commitments. Identifying and addressing the gaps in finance is key to supporting the vision of making water and sanitation services available to all. The following briefing note was commissioned to examine the similarities and differences between Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia: