Skip to main content
TitleWhat impact does the provision of separate toilets for girls at schools have on their primary and secondary school enrolment, attendance and completion? ; a systematic review of the evidence
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsBirdthistle, I, Dickson, K, Freeman, M, Javidi, L
Paginationiii,64 p.; 3 fig.; 3 tab.
Date Published2011-07-01
PublisherInstitute of Education (IoE), University of London
Place PublishedLondon, UK
ISSN Number9781907345173
Keywordsaccess to sanitation, gender, hand washing, sanitation, toilet hygiene

The education of girls is recognised as an investment with many valuable returns, including the health and economic prosperity of women, their families and nations. Despite recent progress in increasing girls' enrolment, statistics from 157 countries indicate that only one country out of three had reached gender parity in both primary and secondary education in 2008. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) estimates that almost half of the 157 countries are unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education no later than 2015 (MDG Goal 3, Target 4). Thus there is much interest in identifying the most effective ways of increasing girls‟ enrolment and completion. Poor school sanitation facilities have been cited as a factor that can impede girls‟
access to their education. For example, UNICEF (United Nations Children‟s Fund) and the International Water and Sanitation Centre argue specifically that „Education for girls can be supported and fostered by something as basic as a girlsonly toilet‟. Consequently, a growing number of organisations are calling for increased investment in gender-sensitive „water, sanitation and health‟ (WASH) interventions in schools, through such initiatives as Raising Clean Hands for WASH in Schools.[authors abstract]

NotesWith bibliography on p. 38 - 40
Custom 1144
Back to
the top