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TitleWater, sanitation and hygiene : quantifying the health impact at national and local levels in countries with incomplete water supply and sanitation coverage
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsFewtrell, L, Pruss-Ustun, A, Bos, R, Gore, F, Bartram, J
Secondary TitleEnvironmental burden of disease series / WHO
Volumeno. 15
Paginationviii, 71 p. : 5 fig., 12 tab.
Date Published2007-01-01
PublisherWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Place PublishedGeneva, Switzerland
ISSN Number9789241595759
Keywordsdiarrhoeal diseases, disease control, guidelines, health impact, malnutrition, sdihyg, socioeconomic impact, water-related diseases

This publication presents guidelines for the development of quantitative estimates of health impacts attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene related risks at country or local level. Most of the data available for the methods used cover developing countries. Eleven diseases or injuries are reviewed. For diarrhoea, a calculation method based on access levels to safe water and adequate sanitation service levels is used. The disease burden from malnutrition is linked to water, sanitation and hygiene related risks because of repeated diarrhoea and intestinal nematode infections especially affecting children. Several infectious diseases such as intestinal nematode infections, schistosomiasis, trachoma or dengue are in certain regions almost entirely attributable to WSH-related risks. The fraction of the other diseases, including malaria, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, Japanese encephalitis and drowning that is attributable to WSH is estimated based on expert judgement and, where possible, a systematic review of the literature. Methods for pooling of expert judgement and for systematic literature reviews are outlined.
The fractions of disease attributable to WSH obtained by the methods outlined in this guide should be combined with national disease statistics for those diseases. The quantification of health impacts and development of understanding of the potential benefits of interventions provide an opportunity to highlight the disease burden that could be prevented through actions in water, sanitation and hygiene. This can assist in directing interventions, and more generally motivate policy action to prevent this disease burden, disproportionately affecting children in the lower socioeconomic segments of the population.

NotesBibliography: p. 47-53
Custom 1245.0


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