|Title||Integrated fluorosis mitigation: guidance manual|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Devotta, S, Rayalu, S, Wate, SR, Labhasetwar, N, Biniwale, RB, Godfrey, S, Labhasetwar, P, Chakma, T, Swami, A, Dwivedi, HB, Parihar, G, Saxena, A|
|Pagination||xii, 87 p. : 21 fig., 9 tab.|
|Publisher||National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, NEERI|
|Place Published||Nagpur, India|
|Keywords||disease control, fluoride removal, fluorosis, manuals, sdihyg|
Fluorosis is endemic in many parts of the world particularly in mid-latitude regions and an endemic public health problem in at least 25 countries. India is the second worst fluorosis affected country in the world with 18 million people affected by dental fluorosis and 8 million by skeletal fluorosis. This guidance manual adopts an Integrated Fluorosis Mitigation (IFM) approach commencing with Quantitative Chemical Risk Assessment (QCRA) as recommended by WHO to establish health based targets for fluoride in drinking water. The QCRA is followed by a specific strategy for fluorosis mitigation which includes water management solutions, domestic level defluoridation and nutrition supplementation. A wide array of adsorbents based on matrices such as modified alumina, modified zeolites, clay and clay pots, plaster of Paris and polymers have been developed and field tested for the defluoridation of drinking water.