This study identifies the effectiveness, costs and cost drivers of SODIS, ceramic filters and biosand filters.
|Title||Household water treatment and safe storage : effectiveness and economics|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Stubbé, SML, Pelgrim-Adams, A, Szanto, GL, van Halem, D|
|Secondary Title||Drinking water engineering and science discussions|
|Keywords||biosand filters, ceramic filters, disinfection, efficiency, point-of-use treatment, SODIS, solar radiation, treatment costs|
Household Water Treatment and safe Storage (HWTS) systems aim to provide safe drinking water in an affordable manner to users where safe piped water supply is either not feasible or not reliable. In this study the effectiveness, costs and cost drivers of three selected HWTS systems were identified. The selected systems are SODIS, ceramic filter and biosand filter. These options were selected based on their current usage rate, available scientific data, and future potential. Data was obtained through peer-reviewed literature, reports, web-pages and informal sources. The findings show a wide dispersion for log removal of effectiveness of the HWTS systems. For bacteria, log removals of 1–9 (SODIS), 0.5–7.2 (ceramic) and 0–3 (biosand) were reported. In the case of viruses, log removals of 0–4.3 (SODIS), 0.09–2.4 (ceramic) and 0–7 (biosand) were found. The dispersions of log removal for both bacteria and viruses range from non-protective to highly protective according to WHO performance targets. The reported costs of HWTS systems show a wide range as well. The price per cubic meter water is found to be EUR 0–8 (SODIS), EUR 0.37–6.4 (ceramic) and EUR 0.08–12.3 (biosand). The retail prices found are: negligible (SODIS), USD 1.9–30 (ceramic) and USD 7–100 (biosand). No relationship was observed between removal efficiency and economics of the three systems. [author abstract]