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TitleWastewater-fed aquaculture : state-of-the-art
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication1999
AuthorsEdwards, P
Pagination38 p. : 1 fig., 3 tab.
Date Published1999-01-01
PublisherAsian Institute of Technology
Place PublishedBangkok, Thailand
Keywordsaquaculture, fish feed, literature reviews, sdisan, urbanization, water reuse

Fish and aquatic plants are farmed for food or feed almost entirely in traditional wastewater-fed aquaculture systems; and mainly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Major systems in China and Vietnam are threatened by urbanization and industrialization, leading to declining areas, and contamination of fish with toxic substances, respectively. The Calcutta system is threatened by urbanization but several new systems have been implemented in smaller cities. Wastewater-fed aquaculture may progress through three successive developmental phases: a phase in densely populated pre-industrial societies in which scarcity of resources led to the development of the practice; a phase in early or rapidly industrializing societies with numerous constraining factors which characterizes most current systems; and possibly a phase in late industrial societies with widespread safe reuse from a public health point of view. Phase 3 is forecast as unlikely to occur, with the possible disappearance of most wastewater-fed aquaculture systems as most developing countries in Phase 2 are currently experiencing constraints which may lead to its disappearance; and today's countries are unlikely to introduce the practice. Perhaps the best prospect for implementation of new wastewater-fed systems is in semi-arid and arid countries such as Egypt and Peru where pilot projects have demonstrated feasibility of practice and where there is increasing pressure to reuse wastewater. A second prospect is to produce fish meal for formulated animal feed.

Notes54 ref.
Custom 1351.1


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