This paper seeks to extend the understanding of the urban environmental agenda and to provide a method for setting local priorities and formulating environmental management strategies.
|Toward environmental strategies for cities : policy considerations for urban environmental management in developing countries
|Year of Publication
|Bartone, C, Bernstein, JD, Leitmann, J, Eigen, J
|Urban management programme policy paper
|115 p.: 17 boxes, 7 fig., 6 tab.
|Washington, DC, USA
|cab95/34, capacity building, case studies, community participation, developing countries, environmental degradation, environmental health, environmental management, environmental protection, planning, policies, poverty, urbanization
This paper seeks to extend the understanding of the urban environmental agenda and to provide a method for setting local priorities and formulating environmental management strategies. It stresses that although cities are the engines of economic growth, rapid urbanization can be a threat to health, the environment, and urban productivity, and that these implications of growth need to be assessed and managed better. The first two parts of the paper describe the most critical problems facing cities; namely, the health impacts of urban pollution derived from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. Individual cities may also face "green" issues such as the depletion of water and forest resources, inefficient transport systems and energy use, the degradation of environmentally fragile lands, and the occupation of areas prone to natural hazards. Part three stresses the need to formulate city-specific environmental management strategies to confront these urban problems and outlines such a strategic approach based on participation, building commitment, and choosing effective policy interventions. Part four describes the strategic planning process successfully applied in many cities which includes informal consultation to clarify environmental issues and to set local priorities; the formulation of an urban environment strategy with phased targets, issue-oriented strategies and actor-specific action plans to achieve long term goals; and follow-up and consolidation to initiate projects and to solidify policy reforms and institutional arrangements.