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Hygiene papers

One of the full papers presented at the South Asia Hygiene practitioners’ workshop, 1 – 4 February 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The workshop is organised by BRAC, WaterAid, WSSCC, and IRC and is part of five learning and sharing workshops on sanitation and hygiene organised in 2009 and 2010.

TitleStages of hygiene monitoring: an operational experience from Nepal : paper presented at the South Asia Hygiene Practitioners Workshop, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1 to 4 February 2010
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsGautam, O, Adhikari, B, Rajbhandari, K, Jones, O
Pagination12 p.; 1 fig.; 7 tab.
Date Published2010-02-01
Place PublishedDhaka, Bangladesh
Keywordshygiene, nepal, water

Hygiene promotion is fundamental for the successful impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions. To maximize the health benefits and produce evidence of the reduction of WASH associated diseases, an effective monitoring system & framework for the different stages is crucial. This paper reports operational experiences of monitoring various projects in the field, from January 2007 to March 2009.Rapid-assessment provides for a quick appraisal of expected project areas and is also instrumental for gathering & identifying high-risk behaviours & areas. A Baseline is crucial for describing the status and trends of the existing situation, against which predicted changes can be compared and evaluated, and actual change can be realized by monitoring. Progress Monitoring is instrumental to tracking changes in people’s knowledge, attitude, and behaviour after programme implementation, and helps to initiate necessary actions for further improvements using Rapid Convenient Survey tool.The Community based monitoring system is used by the community themselves to monitor their hygiene behaviour change. Impact-assessment is important for measuring the success of the hygiene promotion against the baseline. Finally, Long term sustainability monitoring explores the potential of hygienic behaviour, institutional mechanisms and availability of water & sanitation facilities to sustain the outcomes and impact of hygiene programme. A systematic monitoring mechanism for the different stages is imperative, while monitoring indicators applied from baseline to impact assessment should be consistent and coherent. Full-phase monitoring of hygiene with backup by programme is the only evidence-based means to show the attributable contribution from WASH for reducing associated diseases and improving health status.


Paper written for the South Asia Hygiene practioners’ workshop, 1 – 4 February 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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