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This study presents the first adaptation of the life-cycle costs approach to school WASH interventions. It is based on a survey of the sanitation and hygiene activities undertaken in 117 schools in six selected upazilas (sub-districts) out of the 245 upazilas in Bangladesh where the BRAC WASH in schools programme operates.

TitleSchool WASH programmes in Bangladesh : how much does it cost? : applying the life-cycle costs approach in selected upazilas
Publication TypeResearch Report
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsSnehalatha, M, Fonseca, C, Rahman, M, Uddin, R, Ahmed, M, Sharif, AJ
Pagination53 p. : 14 fig., 18 tab.
Date Published03/2015
PublisherIRC and BRAC
Place PublishedThe Hague, The Netherlands
Publication LanguageEnglish

This study applies a life-cycle costs approach (LCCA) to the sanitation and hygiene activities undertaken in 117 schools in six selected upazilas (sub-districts) out of the 245 upazilas in Bangladesh where the BRAC WASH in schools programme operates. 

It uses a school service level framework to evaluate the water, sanitation and hygiene services provided using six criteria:

  1. Access – The number of students per latrine, with separation for boys and girls.
  2. Use – The safe use of latrines, water and soap available for handwashing.
  3. Reliability – Clean latrines, availability of products for regular maintenance.
  4. Drinking water available – Availability of safe drinking water.
  5. Environmental protection – Faecal waste and wastewater safely disposed.
  6. Menstrual hygiene management – Availability of pads for emergencies and facilities for disposal of used napkins

The study analyses expenditure data for capital expenditure (hardware and software), operational expenditure, capital maintenance expenditure and direct support costs.

It concludes with a review of:

  • the methodology for assessing WASH service levels
  • the life-cycle costs of WASH in schools and the relationship between investments and the services provided, and
  • cost benchmarks for sustainable WASH services in schools

Recommendations are provided for the BRAC WASH programme and development partners.

Citation Key79407
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