|Title||Sanitation in India : progress, differentials, correlates, and challenges|
|Authors||Bonu, S, Kim, H|
|Secondary Title||South Asia occassional paper series / ADB|
|Pagination||ix, 35 p. : 16 fig., 5 tab.|
|Keywords||costs, health impact, india, latrines, sanitation, sdiasi, sdiman, sewerage, surveys, WASHCost|
This paper on sanitation in India is based on empirical evidence. It attempts to discern key policy conclusions that could assist India in meeting its set goal of “Sanitation for All” by 2012. The paper looks at (i) safe disposal of human excreta, as measured by household ownership of a sanitary latrine; and (ii) household access to drainage facilities. It investigates the trends, socioeconomic differentials, and correlates of household sanitary latrines from 1992 to 2006, and provides rough cost estimates for universal coverage of sanitation. While significant progress has been achieved in the last decade, the scale of unmet need for sanitation in India is huge. Greater attention on the disadvantaged—households from the poorest quintile and scheduled tribes—and the states that have consistently underperformed (Orissa, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh) could help accelerate further progress. The financing requirements are huge; hence, the paper suggests progressive improvement in the types of sanitation solutions. Sewerage systems tend to benefit richer households; hence, some form of capital cost recovery could be considered to finance sewerage-related infrastructure.