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TitleReuse of human wastes in aquaculture : a technical review
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication1992
AuthorsEdwards, P
Secondary TitleWater and Sanitation Report Series
Volumeno. 2
Paginationxvii, 350 p.: fig., photogr., tab.
Date Published1992-01-01
PublisherUNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program
Place PublishedWashington, DC, USA
Keywordsappropriate technology, aquaculture, aquatic plants, benefits, brackish water, cab92/3, cartage, case studies, design, economic aspects, effluents, human excreta, literature reviews, overhung latrines, oxidation ponds, pathogens, public health, recycling, seawater, septage, social aspects

The use of human waste as a nutrient supply in aquaculture has been in operation for centuries in Asia, and it is being implemented in many developing countries world-wide. If properly managed, it can provide a partial solution to both problems of sanitation and of food sources. Human excreta have been used for nutrients for fish farming as well as for plant aquaculture for such species as water spinach, duckweeds and seaweed. Technical specifications are given for a variety of aquaculture systems, including plant and fish species, construction specifications, operation and maintenance schedules and trouble-shooting. Case studies are presented from developing countries such as Kenya, Peru, Dominican Republic, India and Eastern Europe as well as from industrialized countries such as France, the USA, Israel, the UK and New Zealand. The public health issues, such as a possible increase in waterborne diseases, are discussed in detail. Sociological and economic studies on a variety of levels have been included.

NotesBibliography: p. 307-350
Custom 1272.3, 351.1


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