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Production models for bone char defluoridation, Naivasha, Kenya

The presence of fluoride in drinking water at levels higher than 1.5mg/l can be harmful to human health, causing dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal deformities. High levels of fluoride are often found in groundwater, therefore populations relying on groundwater sources are particularly vulnerable. Bone char, made from heated animal carcass is effective at removing fluoride from water sources, and this filtration technology is in use all over the world for making water safe for drinking and cooking. The Catholic Diocese of Nakuru (CDN) is the sole producer and supplier of bone char to household and community de‐fluoridation units in Naivasha, and elsewhere throughout the Rift Valley. Using results from stakeholder interviews and observations, this paper presents an analysis of the existing system of bone char production, and four alternative management models: community, private small scale enterprise, franchised small scale enterprise and sub‐contraction. A cost evaluation of the existing system is measured against the estimated cost of the alternative models, using a system of profit and loss accounting, and an initial analysis of the sustainability of each is presented. It is concluded that while the existing system preserves quality and cost, its current revenue will not allow for future expansion of operations. Additionally, the characteristics of its centralised system make monitoring of filters a significant problem. The recommended model is one of sub‐contracting where the CDN concentrates on production and out‐sources all of its other operations, allowing them to expand their production activities and preserve quality, whilst solving issues of monitoring with a more decentralised system. [Author’s abstract]

 

TitleProduction models for bone char defluoridation, Naivasha, Kenya
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsArrenberg, A.
Paginationvi, 30 p. : 3 fig., 3 tab.
Date Published2010-09-08
PublisherCranfield University at Silsoe
Place PublishedSilsoe, UK
Keywordscharred bone meal, cost benefit analysis, fluorides, groundwater pollution, kenya, production, sdiafr, sdiman
Abstract

The presence of fluoride in drinking water at levels higher than 1.5mg/l can be harmful to human health, causing dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal deformities. High levels of fluoride are often found in groundwater, therefore populations relying on groundwater sources are particularly vulnerable. Bone char, made from heated animal carcass is effective at removing fluoride from water sources, and this filtration technology is in use all over the world for making water safe for drinking and cooking. The Catholic Diocese of Nakuru (CDN) is the sole producer and supplier of bone char to household and community de‐fluoridation units in Naivasha, and elsewhere throughout the Rift Valley. Using results from stakeholder interviews and observations, this paper presents an analysis of the existing system of bone char production, and four alternative management models: community, private small scale enterprise, franchised small scale enterprise and sub‐contraction. A cost evaluation of the existing system is measured against the estimated cost of the alternative models, using a system of profit and loss accounting, and an initial analysis of the sustainability of each is presented. It is concluded that while the existing system preserves quality and cost, its current revenue will not allow for future expansion of operations. Additionally, the characteristics of its centralised system make monitoring of filters a significant problem. The recommended model is one of sub‐contracting where the CDN concentrates on production and out‐sources all of its other operations, allowing them to expand their production activities and preserve quality, whilst solving issues of monitoring with a more decentralised system. [Author’s abstract]

 

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Disclaimer

The copyright of the documents on this site remains with the original publishers. The documents may therefore not be redistributed commercially without the permission of the original publishers.