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TitleA primer on energy efficiency for municipal water and wastewater utilities
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsLiu, F, Ouedraogo, A, Manghee, S, Danilenko, A
Secondary TitleEnergy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Technical report
Paginationiv, 62 p.; 3 tab.; 7 fig.; 12 boxes
Date Published2012-02-01
PublisherThe International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : The World Bank
Place PublishedWashington, DC, USA
Keywordsenergy consumption, urban areas, wastewater treatment, water supply

This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater — activities which are directly managed by water and wastewater utilities (WWUs). Demand-side issues of the municipal water cycle, including water-use efficiency and water conservation, are referred to where linkages to energy efficiency (EE) are critical, but are not discussed in detail. Electricity costs are usually between 5 to 30 percent of total operating costs among WWUs. The share is usually higher in developing countries and can go up to 40 percent or more in some countries. Such energy costs often contribute to high and unsustainable operating costs that directly affect the financial health of WWUs. Improving EE is at the core of measures to reduce operational cost at WWUs. Since energy
represents the largest controllable operational expenditure of most WWUs, and many EE measures have a payback period of less than five years, investing in EE supports quicker and greater expansion of clean water access for the poor by making the system cheaper to operate. [authors abstract]

NotesWith bibliography on p. 38 - 39
Custom 1205.40


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