This study reviews the performance, use and operation and maintenance requirements of sanitation systems in low-income areas in India and Thailand. Specific attention is given to user attitudes and practices and to the role of authorities.
|Title||Operation and maintenance of sanitation systems in urban low-income areas in India and Thailand : report on a joint research programme, 1989-1993|
|Publication Type||Research Report|
|Year of Publication||1997|
|Secondary Title||Project and programme papers / IRC|
|Pagination||x, 97 p. : 10 fig., 11 tab.|
|Place Published||The Hague, The Netherlands|
|Keywords||cesspools, field studies, financing, government organizations, india, institutional framework, low-income communities, maintenance, operation, pollution, pour flush latrines, public toilets, septic tank systems, thailand, urban areas, use of facilities, wastewater treatment|
This study reviews the performance, use and operation and maintenance requirements of sanitation systems in low-income areas in India and Thailand. Specific attention is given to user attitudes and practices and to the role of authorities. The report includes an assessment of the requirements of operation and maintenance and recommendations for the planning, design, implementation of future sanitation schemes. In India research focused on the double-pit pour-flush latrine. In Thailand, the main systems studied were cesspools, septic tanks with anaerobic upflow filters and two types of treatment plants, aerated lagoons and activated sludge-aeration tanks. Other systems found in the research areas are also included such as public latrines in India and septic tanks with soakaway in Thailand. Research in India revealed that the supply-driven approach to sanitation provision resulted in 18-57 per cent of households not using their latrines. In Thailand poorly functioning systems lead to environmental pollution. In both countries local authorities lack the technical know-how to properly carry out operation and maintenance services. They also do not have a separate budget to cover these services.
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