From the original wooden pipes from the 1800's to modern day systems, sewer systems have been a public health concern in urban and rural areas.
|Title||Innovative and low cost technologies utilized in sewerage|
|Year of Publication||1992|
|Authors||Azevedo Netto, J.M. de, Reid, R.|
|Secondary Title||Technical series / PAHO Environmental Health Program|
|Pagination||94 p.: 22 fig., 10 tab.|
|Publisher||Pan American Health Organization, Environmental Health Program|
|Place Published||Washington, DC, USA|
|Keywords||appropriate technology, condominial sewerage, construction costs, design, design criteria, hydraulics, settled sewerage, sewerage, simplified sewerage|
From the original wooden pipes from the 1800's to modern day systems, sewer systems have been a public health concern in urban and rural areas. There are three major types of sewer systems: combined sewer and rainwater, partially seperated and separated systems. Combined systems are large and costly to construct, and during dry weather they are liable to silt; therefore separate systems are usually advised if possible. The water velocity has to be kept high enough for a self-cleansing action. Manholes can be dangerous and expensive, and there are new technologies to eliminate most of them. The report gives technical and design specifications on the new modifications available in sewer systems, including hydraulic characteristics, construction costs, operation and maintenance, and services and infrastructure support.
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