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TitleIndia's national sanitation and hygiene programme : from experience to policy West Bengal and Maharashtra models provide keys to success
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsGanguly, S
Paginationp.126 - 147; 1 fig.; 2 tab.; 1 box
Date Published2008-01-29
Place PublishedThe Hague, The Netherlands
Keywordsfinancing, india, rural sanitation programme (india), sanitation, sanitation services

The national rural sanitation programme of the Indian government began in 1986. It has evolved into the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), which now operates in 578 districts of 30 states/union territories and is resourced with over US$1 billion, to reach India's rural population of 71%. TCS successfully encourages households to
finance their own toilets while giving financial incentives to poorer people. The 1% average annual progress of 1981-2001 grew to 3% in 2002-2007 and presently suggests an annual growth of 5-7%. A nationwide network of Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centres has been established with government funds, although they are run primarily by NGOs and CBOs. This has boosted the supply chain, promotes sanitation and hygiene and caters to 138 million rural households of which around 55%
are still without toilets. Lessons from three decades of a government-driven programme suggest that forward looking policies, combined resources, a strong institutional setting and decentralised delivery are key to reaching at least half of these by 2012, the end of India's 11th five-year plan. Although progress is uneven, models in West Bengal, Maharashtra and elsewhere show how informed strategies, high people participation, strong monitoring and political determination yield results that can be scaled up rapidly. TSC provides a platform for innovation and creative solutions. Tamil Nadu - one of the leaders in school sanitation, hygiene education and gender concerns - is now joined by states including Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh to infuse the muchneeded qualitative aspects. As competition is fired by the national award, Nirmal Gram Puraskar, for measurably ending open defecation, the deeper issues of environmental safety, management of diminishing water resources, water less/low water technology options, standards for personal and household hygiene practices and gender-sensitive approaches, require culture-appropriate programmatic responses. TSC will now have to embrace far more than the basics to make water and sanitation goals achievable, sustainable and equitable. [authors abstract]

NotesWith list of references on p. 147
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