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TitleHow to climate proof water and sanitation services in the peri-urban areas in Lusaka : work based on field visit to Lusaka undertaken in May 2010
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsHeath, T, Parker, A, Weatherhead, K
Pagination38 p. : 5 fig.
Date Published2010-06-01
PublisherWater and Sanitation for the Urban Poor, WSUP
Place PublishedLondon, UK
Keywordsperi-urban communities, water kiosks, water supply and sanitation in peri-urban areas and small centres programme, zambia, zambia lusaka

This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on water and sanitation technologies in two peri-urban areas in Lusaka, Chazanga and Kanyama, and the potential adaptations required to mitigate the impacts. Under current forecasts of climate change, the mean temperature in Zambia is predicted to increase. It is less certain how average precipitation will be affected, but both floods and droughts will occur more often. Chazanga is most at risk to a decrease in precipitation which will cause a lower water table. This will result in water scarcity, damage to infrastructure and drying up of shallow wells, all of which will increase the demand for new kiosks. In addition, decreased rainfall will affect hydroelectricity generation and cause power shortages. However, if precipitation (or its intensity) increases, there will be flood damage to boreholes, kiosks, septic tanks and pit latrines and poor drainage at kiosks. Kanyama is most at risk to an increase in precipitation, resulting in an increase in flooding (currently Kanyama’s floods last for 3 months). Flooding causes kiosks and buildings to collapse, contaminates water supplies (particularly the shallow wells used in the unserved areas) and affects livelihoods, education and health. Flooded latrines and contaminated water will increase cholera and diarrhoea. Potential short, medium and long term adaptations were identified for the Water Trusts, Lusaka Water and Sewage Company and the City Council. The adaptations were determined based upon a field visit, a vulnerability assessment and a literature review. The key recommendations are as follows and should be developed within a water safety plan:
Chazanga: in the short term acquiring a generator to mitigate the impact of power cuts, while on a longer time scale acquiring a direct line from LWSC. Expanding the kiosk network into unserved areas; the building standards of soakaways should be improved; vegetation should be planted next to the roads and the shallow wells protected from runoff; ECOSAN should be encouraged, investing in the technology , education and market for sewage; there should be enforcement against fly tipping of faeces and raising awareness of the health issues. For
Kanyama : improving the drainage should be the main priority; developing emptying options for latrines, including those which have collapsed; ensure new latrines are sufficiently elevated to avoid sewage out flowing; ECOSAN should be reviewed and in the longer term decentralised sewage promoted; expand the kiosk network into unserved areas; tighter enforcement against fly tipping. Lusaka Water and Sewage Company: investigate link between groundwater recharge and rainfall intensity in Chazanga; construct new storage tanks for both settlements; rehabilitation of pipe network to improve pressure in systems; establish/expand peri-urban unit to provide technical and administrative assistance during flooding. Lusaka City Council: implement land management activities to reduce severity of floods; prove drainage system in Kanyama and employ workforce to maintain and clean the drains; subsidise tanker/provider free removal of waste, improve solid waste disposal optionss; construct a deeper and wider main drain in Kanyama to accommodate the increased flooding water. [authors' abstract]

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