Skip to main content

Greywater management in low and middle -income countries : review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods

This report provides a comprehensive description of the main components for successful greywater management and compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries.
In urban areas of low and middle-income countries, greywater is commonly discharged untreated into drainage channels, on open fields or into natural aquatic systems. The rural and peri-urban areas mainly use untreated greywater for agricultural purposes, thereby leading to environmental degradation and exposing the population to health risks. Greywater is generally less polluted than domestic or industrial wastewater, but it may still contain high levels of pathogenic micro-organisms, suspended solids and substances such as oil, fat, soap, detergents and other household chemicals. Recommendations are formulated for control measures at the source, design of primary and secondary treatment systems as well as for safe reuse and disposal of treated greywater. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters). Treated greywater is not always reused. In regions with water scarcity and poor water supply services, emphasis is placed on agricultural reuse of treated greywater, whereas in regions with abundant water, greywater is of minor importance and locally infiltrated or discharged into nearby water streams.
With elaborated case studies from Mali, South Africa, Costa Rica, Nepal, Jordan, Palestine, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

TitleGreywater management in low and middle -income countries : review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsMorel, A, Diener, S
Secondary TitleSANDEC report
Volumeno. 14/06
Paginationviii, 96 p. : fig., photogr., tab.
Date Published2006-09-01
PublisherSwiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG)
Place PublishedDuebendorf, Switzerland
ISSN Number3906484378
Keywordscase studies, costa rica, jordan, laundry wastewater, malaysia, mali, nepal, palestine, sdiman, sdisan, south africa, sri lanka, sullage, wastewater collection, wastewater recycling, wastewater treatment
Abstract

This report provides a comprehensive description of the main components for successful greywater management and compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries.
In urban areas of low and middle-income countries, greywater is commonly discharged untreated into drainage channels, on open fields or into natural aquatic systems. The rural and peri-urban areas mainly use untreated greywater for agricultural purposes, thereby leading to environmental degradation and exposing the population to health risks. Greywater is generally less polluted than domestic or industrial wastewater, but it may still contain high levels of pathogenic micro-organisms, suspended solids and substances such as oil, fat, soap, detergents and other household chemicals. Recommendations are formulated for control measures at the source, design of primary and secondary treatment systems as well as for safe reuse and disposal of treated greywater. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters). Treated greywater is not always reused. In regions with water scarcity and poor water supply services, emphasis is placed on agricultural reuse of treated greywater, whereas in regions with abundant water, greywater is of minor importance and locally infiltrated or discharged into nearby water streams.
With elaborated case studies from Mali, South Africa, Costa Rica, Nepal, Jordan, Palestine, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

NotesBibliography : p. 90 - 96
Custom 1341.0

Downloads

Disclaimer

The copyright of the documents on this site remains with the original publishers. The documents may therefore not be redistributed commercially without the permission of the original publishers.