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External support programs to improve rural drinking water service sustainability : a systematic review

Achieving sufficient, safe, continuously-available drinking water services in rural areas is a challenge, in high- and especially low-and middle-income countries. External support programs (ESPs) - which may include administrative, financial, and technical assistance - have been hypothesized to contribute to sustainable rural water services. While there are many descriptions of ESPs, a standard terminology and typology of ESP activities does not exist and the effect of ESP activities on system sustainability remains inadequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of ESPs for rural drinking water systems to identify ESP terminology and describe ESP activities. Findings from 218 publications from low-, middle-, and high-income countries were analyzed. ESP terms were used inconsistently between regions and income classifications. There were few studies describing ESP activities related to mechanized piped water systems. Few studies quantitatively assess the effect of ESPs. Those that did found positive associations with functionality, household satisfaction, household participation, and financial stability. This review is the first comprehensive evaluation of the ESP literature and we derive a definition of external support programs and typology of ESP activities from the descriptions of ESPs. A common understanding of ESPs facilitates discussion and knowledge transfer between stakeholders. Consistent terminology creates a foundation for adapting ESPs to water services in community institutions and for mechanized piped water systems. [author abstract]

TitleExternal support programs to improve rural drinking water service sustainability : a systematic review
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsMiller, M, Cronk, R, Klug, T, Kelly, ER, Behnke, N, Bartram, J
Secondary TitleScience of the total environment
Volume670
Pagination717-731
Date Published03/2019
Publication LanguageEnglish
Keywordscircuit rider, Continuity, Functionality, post-construction support, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), System dynamics model, water quality
Abstract

Achieving sufficient, safe, continuously-available drinking water services in rural areas is a challenge, in high- and especially low-and middle-income countries. External support programs (ESPs) - which may include administrative, financial, and technical assistance - have been hypothesized to contribute to sustainable rural water services. While there are many descriptions of ESPs, a standard terminology and typology of ESP activities does not exist and the effect of ESP activities on system sustainability remains inadequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of ESPs for rural drinking water systems to identify ESP terminology and describe ESP activities. Findings from 218 publications from low-, middle-, and high-income countries were analyzed. ESP terms were used inconsistently between regions and income classifications. There were few studies describing ESP activities related to mechanized piped water systems. Few studies quantitatively assess the effect of ESPs. Those that did found positive associations with functionality, household satisfaction, household participation, and financial stability. This review is the first comprehensive evaluation of the ESP literature and we derive a definition of external support programs and typology of ESP activities from the descriptions of ESPs. A common understanding of ESPs facilitates discussion and knowledge transfer between stakeholders. Consistent terminology creates a foundation for adapting ESPs to water services in community institutions and for mechanized piped water systems. [author abstract]

URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/331740964_External_support_programs_to_improve_rural_drinking_water_service_sustainability_A_systematic_review
DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.069
Short TitleScience of The Total Environment

Disclaimer

The copyright of the documents on this site remains with the original publishers. The documents may therefore not be redistributed commercially without the permission of the original publishers.