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Evaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya

Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. (Author abstract)

TitleEvaluating four measures of water quality in clay pots and plastic safe storage containers in Kenya
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsMurphy, JL, Ayers, TL, Knee, J, Oremo, J, Odhiambo, A, Faith, SH, Nyagol, RO, Stauber, CE, Lantagne, DS, Quick, RE
Secondary TitleWater research
Volume104
Pagination312-319
Date Published11/2016
Publication LanguageEnglish
Keywordschlorination, Household Water Treatment, water storage
Abstract

Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E. coli concentration over 72 h in clay and plastic containers. Results showed that 1) ORP served as a useful proxy for chlorination in plastic containers up to 24 h; 2) most stored water samples disinfected by chlorination remained significantly less contaminated than source water for up to 72 h, even in the absence of FCR; 3) TCR may be a useful proxy indicator of microbiologic water quality because it confirms previous chlorination and is associated with a lower risk of E. coli contamination compared to untreated source water; and 4) chlorination is more effective in plastic than clay containers presumably because of lower chlorine demand in plastic. (Author abstract)

DOI10.1016/j.watres.2016.08.022
Short TitleWater Research

Disclaimer

The copyright of the documents on this site remains with the original publishers. The documents may therefore not be redistributed commercially without the permission of the original publishers.