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TitleEcological sanitation and associated hygienic risk : an overview of existing policy making guidelines and research
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsGajurel, D.R., Wendland, C.
Edition2. Edition published by WECF Utrecht/Munich, September 2007 : 1. Edition prepared for WECF in 2004
Pagination32 p.; 8 tab.; 8 fig.
Date Published2007-09-01
PublisherWomen in Europe for a Common Future (WECF)
Place PublishedUtrecht, The Netherlands
Keywordsecological sanitation, household wastes, human excreta, nutrients, urine, urine treatment, wastewater

In household wastewater, urine contains considerably large amount of nutrients derived from agriculture whereas faeces contain most of the pathogens with a
 potential of causing diseases. Therefore, source control of faeces from household wastewater prevents these disease-causing pathogens gaining access to water
 bodies where they survive longer than on land and pose a long-term threat to human health. At the same time, by separating urine large concentration of nutrients can be recovered with low contamination of pathogens which pose little hygienic risk. It is most beneficial when faeces are kept separated at source which avoids dilution. With the development of ecological sanitation it is possible to separate faeces and urine at source. In ecological sanitation, heavy metals are not
 a big concern, since human excreta contain approximately the same amount of heavy metals as food and therefore there is no risk of heavy metal accumulation in
 soil due to these fertilisers. However, the issue of pharmaceutical residues in excreta has to be addressed. [authors abstract]

NotesWith approximately 50 references
Custom 1822, 302.0


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