|Title||Community water supply and sanitation in South-East Asia region : International Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation Decade assessment and perspective for the 1990s|
|Year of Publication||1993|
|Authors||WHO -New Delhi, IN, World Health Organization|
|Pagination||ii, 110 p. : 2 fig., 2 tab.|
|Publisher||World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Office|
|Place Published||New Delhi, India|
|Keywords||bangladesh, bhutan, idwssd, india, indonesia, maldives, mongolia, myanmar, nepal, planning, regional level, rural areas, safe water supply, sanitation, south east asia, sri lanka, statistics, thailand, urban areas|
This document presents an overview and assessment of WS&S in the South-East Asia Region of WHO. It describes the achievements made by each country during the Decade, the constraints, and the areas of action in the 1990s to complete the initiatives begun in the Decade. The role which WHO may play in supplementing national efforts is also outlined. The countries assessed include: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand. As of 1990, urban water supply coverage for the region was at 76 per cent, rural at 66 per cent; urban sanitation coverage was at 48 per cent, rural at 11.5 per cent. The aim for 2000 is 93 per cent urban water supply coverage, 95 per cent rural, and 80 per cent urban sanitation coverage, 70 per cent rural. Although countries such as Bangladesh and India have made advances in both urban and rural water supply coverage, the situation in regard to sanitation, especially rural, in these two countries as well as in Maldives, Nepal and Myanmar is still weak. However, awareness campaigns about the essential role played by better water supply and sanitation in community health and development, as well as community health education and the mobilization of women leaders to act as focal points for passing on simple hygiene messages are helping to promote improvements in sanitation practices. Goals for the 1990s include integrating promotional and health education efforts in coverage programmes, including health and hygiene education in school curriculums, initiating formal and informal health education campaigns, involving women in the community as motivators and facilitators, and using innovative communication technology to promote awareness among women?s groups and communities. In outlining constraints preventing better progress toward providing total service coverage, the document identifies funding limitations as the most severe, followed by operation and maintenance, insufficiency of trained personnel and cost recovery through community participation. Actions for the 1990s stress the promotion of hygiene for proper use of WS&S facilities and giving sanitation higher priority. WHO, continuing its support in the 1990s, will emphasize community participation/management and strengthening the role of women.