|Community-based sanitation for urban poor : the case of Quetta, Pakistan
|Year of Publication
|Qutub, SA, Salam, N, Shah, K, Anjum, D
|16 p. : 6 fig.; 1 box; 5 tab.
|Delft, The Netherlands
|environmental impact, environmental management, environmental sanitation, pakistan, quetta katchi abadis environmental management programme (qkaemp) (pakistan), self evaluation, self-help labour, urban areas, urban communities, urbanization
Rapid urbanisation has increased the need for an adequate sanitation system in Quetta, Pakistan’s 12th largest city but inadequate institutional capacities have hindered the development of one. This has caused chronic problems in the city’s 47 Katchi Abadis (informal settlements).Between 1997 and 2003, the Netherlands Government funded a local environmental management programme which involved a partnership between city governments, community-based and non-governmental organisations. It was called Quetta Katchi Abadies Environment Management Programme (QKAEMP). This paper offers some details about QKAEMP, specifically its: institutional framework; technology options; implementation arrangements; hygiene promotion activities; cost and tenure issues. Two surveys conducted in May 2004 and December 2007, after the project had finished, provide information about the outcomes of the programme. The outcomes were generally positive across the range of indicators studied. This paper outlines factors in the success of the programme as well as some of the constraints faced, challenges that need to be confronted and issues for scaling up. We conclude that a modest level of subsidy that is performance oriented can facilitate the start up of a community-based sanitation programme for the urban poor based on small bore shallow sewers or other appropriate technology. Federal Government funded Quetta Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project (QWSEIP) has succeeded QKAEMP, and adopted its approach. It could potentially reach out to all the households in the Katchi Abadis of Quetta. However, a high level of subsidy has been set, with the risks of distorting the incentives of the programme partners and diminishing community ownership. Political vision and leadership is needed for sustaining and scaling up the community-based urban sanitation approach.