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The SMART market-based approach is contributing to SDG 6 and beyond. Its impact is significant, but localised.

TitleAssessment of the Simple, Market-based, Affordable and Repairable Technologies (SMART) approach for water and sanitation : final report
Publication TypeResearch Report
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsDanert, K, Sutton, S, Ward, R, Veldmann, R, Haanen, R, Kimaro, E, L. Larrea, D, Butterworth, JA
Paginationx, 86 p. : 19 boxes, 17 fig., 14 tab.
Date Published09/2022
PublisherIRC Consult
Place PublishedThe Hague, the Netherlands
Publication LanguageEnglish
Keywordsassessment, SMART Centres

This report, commissioned by the Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, assesses the potential of the SMART approach in reaching SDG6, and other related SDGs in eight African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, South Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia).  

The SMART approach comprises three pillars: 1) The use of innovative technologies, the SMARTechs; 2) Training of the private sector and 3) Promoting Self-supply. The use of SMARTechs (including manually drilled boreholes, various lifting devices including rope pumps and solar pumps, rain water harvesting systems and household water treatment) is considered as a way of reducing costs and scaling up the options for community and household investments at family level

The report is based upon review of documents, primary data collection (in late 2021) in Tanzania and Zambia including water point surveys and focus group discussions, key informant interviews and water quality testing.

The assessment concluded that the SMART market-based approach is contributing to SDG 6 and beyond. It can provide safe water, located at, or close to people’s homes and can boost rural incomes. It also highly relevant to the policy priorities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The impact of the SMART Centres is significant, but localised. Official recognition of Self-supply and targeted subsidies is likely to be vital to scale impacts, though this is constrained by low levels of funding and staffing, insufficient working partnerships, negative attitudes towards Self-supply, as well as misconceptions in the international water supply community.

The report concludes with recommendations for the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the SMART approach, SMART Centres, the SMART Centre Group, and the SMART Centre management.


Includes 102 ref.

Citation Key89616



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