This paper, directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, presents widely used strategies and policy instruments (regulatory and economic) that address urban environmental problems.
|Title||Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management : regulatory and economic instruments|
|Year of Publication||1993|
|Secondary Title||Urban management programme discussion paper|
|Pagination||vii, 64 p.: 5 boxes, 1 fig., 1 tab.|
|Place Published||Washington, DC, USA|
|Keywords||air pollution, disposal, economic aspects, groundwater protection, hazardous wastes, institutional development, land use, legislation, policies, pollution control, regulatory authorities, solid wastes, surface water pollution, urban areas|
This paper, directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, presents widely used strategies and policy instruments (regulatory and economic) that address urban environmental problems. It also explores how regulatory and economic instruments are used in developed and developing countries to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous waste. The paper is presented in two chapters. The discusses the two main approaches to pollution control and waste management, as well as the principal regulatory and economic instruments to meet environmental objectives. It also addresses institutional implications of regulatory and economic instruments and draws conclusions on environmental strategies in developing countries. The second chapter discusses regulatory and economic instruments as they apply to specific urban environmental problems. It includes examples of how developed and developing countries have used these instruments to achieve environmental objectives. Information on the results of applying the selected instruments is provided. The paper concludes that further research is needed on environmental management strategies and capacity building for appropriate monitoring and enforcement in developing countries.