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Carmen worked on communications, hygiene promotion and behaviour change and impact evaluation. In addition, Carmen coordinated the thematic group on 'learning for change'. She has been contributing to the development of the Learning Alliance approach and 'process documentation'. She has (co)authored publications and guidelines on these topics and developed and facilitated training courses together with IRC's partners.

Her field work has been concentrated mainly in South Asia and Uganda, where she has organised and facilitated workshops, study tours and applied a range of skills in hygiene and sanitation programme development. Her field experience includes project management, action-research on Integrated Urban Water Management, and training and coaching on communications and gender mainstreaming in hygiene promotion.


Carmen has a special interest in intercultural communications and organisational development. She has an MA in Social and Cultural Sciences, with a specialisation in Culture, Organisation and Management (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Her thesis research took her to South Africa, where she facilitated workshops on gender and organizational change. Selected by the Aga Khan Foundation programme for young professionals, she worked in Zanzibar for the NGO Resource Centre, documenting their contribution to civil society in Zanzibar and Pemba. Before joining IRC, she worked for the Town Council of Amsterdam on urban re-development.

Recent work

  • Sierra Leone learning for improvement in water, sanitation and hygiene: developing a website, process and templates for supporting sector players to share information and learn, capacity development through a writing workshop.
  • Burkina Faso, Honduras, Ghana, Nepal, Uganda (sector learning with WASH Resource Centre Networks): a learning and documentation initiative about the contribution of WASH RCNs to learning in their WASH sectors, supported by PSO. 2009-2012 
  • Bangladesh (BRAC WASH): documentation and dissemination, hygiene promotion for men
  • Uganda (decentralised learning in LeaPPS and PILS): Hygiene and sanitation workshops for district and sub-district level stakeholders (government and NGOs) on household and school sanitation and hygiene. Carmen's work has included facilitation of defining future goals through visioning, coordination and planning workshops, capacity building of field staff on documentation skills. 2008- 2010.
  • Bangladesh (WASPA): Technical assistance on Sanitation and Hygiene and support to country teams on documentation and methodology for participatory planning and stakeholder engagement. 2007-2008. 
  • Nepal: Design and facilitation of training on inclusive hygiene promotion with a focus on involving men in hygiene improvements. Training of field staff, workshops with regional and national level stakeholders. Project management, progress monitoring and reporting (Western Region and national workshops, Nepal). 2008-2009.
  • South Asia: Asian Hygiene and Sanitation practitioners' workshop organised in collaboration with WaterAid, WSSCC, and BRAC; provided logistical and editorial support, contributed to design and facilitation of workshop. Carmen co-edited the publication: 'Beyond Construction: use by all: a collection of case studies from sanitation and hygiene promotion practitioners in South Asia'. IRC and WaterAid. 2008.
  • Sustainable Water Management Improves Tomorrow's Cities (SWITCH). SWITCH aims to bring about a paradigm shift in urban water management towards a more coherent and integrated approach. Carmen has been responsible for training, progress monitoring of multi-stakeholder processes, writing and editing guidelines for urban water management, visioning and strategy development.