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Institutions

The organisations, their coordination, roles, interactions and rules that govern them - in a country and its WASH sector

The efficiency and accountability of service providers and service authorities - to each other and to users

This building block considers which organisations are responsible for each function in the WASH system, the separation and/or overlap between them, their ability to fulfil their roles and the rules that bind them. There needs to be an effective balance of power and responsibilities between the organisation providing the service (the service provider), the organisation which governs it (the service authority or regulator) and the service user

There are many possible organisations, and many possible institutional arrangements between them, driven by fundamental policy choices regarding different types of service delivery model: public, private, community or some blend.  What is critical from a systems perspective is that for each type of service delivery model, there is a clearly defined national policy and regulatory framework that is recognised, adopted, and adhered to by all these organisations, and that the organisations have the necessary competencies and capacity to do so. 

Links to other building blocks: the different roles of (potential) actors in WASH is strongly defined by sector policy and legislation. For example, private sector involvement in service delivery requires a policy decision and enabling legislation.  The capacity and effectiveness of key sector organisations is underpins almost all other building blocks.