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Dinajpur district residents have stopped defecating in the open because of the children's total sanitation campaign that follows a radical community-led approach.

Whistle blowing is a favorite pastime among children in the villages of Dinajpur district in northern Bangladesh. They would blow their whistles when they spot fellow villagers, often adults, defecating in the open, chasing the surprised offenders who would then pull their pants up and attempt to escape the noise and humiliation. Within 6 months, they shamed some 250 people from different villages. Besides the whistling and flag-marking, the children also march around villages, chanting slogans against open defecation (OD), sending a direct message to all villagers about the dirty old habit. The children's involvement in this direct action against OD is part of the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), "an integrated approach to achieving and sustaining open defecation free status." The children know that their efforts help protect their own and their communities' health, and adults include them in community decision-making. Designed by social development specialist Dr. Kamal Kar, CLTS was introduced by Plan, an international development agency, to some 200 villages in Dinajpur in 2004. In CLTS, hands-off facilitation is important.

The rule of thumb for social development facilitators is to trigger self-realization, and not to lecture. Instant provision of hardware-latrines or toilets-are also discouraged. Villagers have to realize first that the problem is staring at them right in the face. The CLTS approach helps communities recognize that they need such sanitation facilities, that they should mobilize themselves to build their own toilets, and that everyone in the village should contribute to achieve "total sanitation." [...] Today, most Dinajpur villages have achieved "open defecation free" (ODF) status and, thanks to Plan's efforts, a number of villages in several districts have also adopted the CLTS approach. The children's campaign is the just the beginning. CLTS allows villagers to generate their own ideas for improvement, take control of development processes and decision-making, and manage and sustain the activities. Often, CLTS has led to improving latrine designs, adopting hygienic practices, managing solid waste and wastewater, protecting drinking water sources, and other environmental activities. Some villagers, however, can prove to be more difficult than others. Ferdousi said, "Two years to convert everyone is not enough, but we will keep on raising awareness."  Plan now promotes CLTS in other countries in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

A CLTS Handbook, published in 2008, is also available for social development facilitators.

Related web site: Community-led Total Sanitation - Bangladesh

See also: Whistle blowers put a stop to open defecation, Plan Bangladesh, 28 Mar 2008

Source: Cezar Tigno, ADB, Jan 2009

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