Uganda's new third National Development Plan (NDPIII) 2020/21 – 2024/25 launched last year introduced a new institutional framework with a shift from sector to programme implementation. The Uganda Water and Sanitation Network (UWASNET) organised a dialogue aimed at identifying areas for civil society understanding, contribution and participation in the dissemination and implementation of NDPIII.
The half-day dialogue meeting on NDPIII was organized with support from IRC Uganda, Water For People & WaterAid Uganda under the Agenda for Change and GIZ under the Civil Society in Uganda Support Programme (CUSP). The meeting was held on April 27th, 2021 at Imperial Royal Hotel, Kampala and it attracted sixty (60) participants.
The WISE project is set to provide safe water, good sanitation, and healthy hygiene to all the schools in Addis Ababa. To put these services in place, both AAEB and SPLASH are investing considerable amounts of money. Hand washing stations, drinking water filters, latrine blocks are being built and hygiene behaviour change campaigns rolled out. But how much does it cost to keep these running once the project is over? Who will finance these operational costs?
IRC WASH did a study in 2019 to look at all the different costs (using the so-called – Life-Cycle Cost Approach- LCCA) and has now updated it for 2021. This has provided the following insights:
The WISE project has adapted since 2019 and has been raising the provided service levels. Particularly by reducing intermittent water, by including faecal sludge aspects, and by broadening hygiene training with janitors. This has led to an increase in CapEx cost per student from ETB 886 to ETB 3103. The Main CapEx cost is sanitation (63%) and therefore improving costs effectiveness of sanitation should have priority.
The annual recurrent expenditure is ETB 256 per student per year, of which ETB 184 (71%) is covered by Taxes (School budgets), 6% by Tariffs (parents paying for soap), and ETB 57 by Transfers (Splash mainly on support costs and operation costs for water).
To achieve good quality basic service levels ETB 595 per student per year on recurrent cost is needed. This gives a current finance gap of ETB 338, which is mainly toilet paper for students, which arguably should be covered by Tariffs (parents or other sources of income).
The key to securing funds for sustainable funding for WASH is working with sub-city and woreda staff on the allocation of the available budget. The annual recurrent expenditure of ETB 184 per student per year should be raised to ETB 240 to remove dependency on SPLASH funds for annual recurrent costs. This is respectively 6% and 4% of primary and secondary school fund allocation.
developing a National Menstrual Hygiene Management Strategic Plan. As part of the plan development processes, a situational analysis was carried out in 2020 around the topic in 14 districts. This reports presents the findings of the situational analysis, describes the MHH challenges and presents recommendations for the way forward.
Ensuring access to safe and sufficient water and sanitation and hygiene promotion in schools has great potential to improve health and education and to contribute to inclusion and equity, yet delivering school-based WASH intervention does not guarantee good outcomes.
Adopting a systems approach of WASH services, which included strengthening institutional systems and service delivery models, while also introducing robust monitoring systems, has demonstrated an improvement in sanitation access at scale.
Behaviour change is not sufficient in itself to improve health and livelihoods, nor is construction, improving accountability, training, capacity building or monitoring. A full suite of government-led activities and interventions are needed to support equitable universal access to sustainable sanitation services. Lessons learnt from Ethiopia's the ONEWASH Plus programme.
Addis Ababa Education Bureau, supported by Splash have set themselves the task to supply all 483 government schools in Addis Ababa with safe water, good sanitation and good hygiene services, based on the model that Splash has developed worldwide.
Splash has partnered with IRC WASH to understand the life cycle costs of these interventions. The Life Cycle Cost Approach (LCCA) captures the costs/expenses that are needed to keep services running.
The report and findings are based on data and information collected in 2019 through interviews with stakeholders, Splash staff and a survey of 40 schools of sites where interventions have taken place.
The initial investment, or capital expenditure (CapEx) was found to be ETB 886 (USD 29.5) per student. Of this, 86% is regarded as hardware intervention (CapEx hardware) and 14% CapEx software such as mobilisation and awareness raising. The bulk of the capital investments go towards sanitation (60%), followed by drinking water (33%) and hygiene (6%).
More funding, standardisation of infrastructure designs and requirements, better sector coordination and better knowledge and resources sharing would help NGOs improve their WASH in schools programmes.
This paper draws on examples from eighteen countries to summarise emerging successes and challenge in programmes that use water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions to prevent and manage neglected tropical diseases (NTD).
By helping over 39 million people gain access to hygienic latrines and 2.3 million people gain access to safe water across 250 sub-districts, the BRAC WASH programme has made an outstanding contribution to continuing efforts to transform the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in rural Bangladesh from 2006 to 2015. BRAC WASH has helped to bring about a social transformation in areas where it works, with significant progress on rural sanitation particularly for the poorest families. Success has been achieved over a nine year period not only in the provision of hygienic household latrines, but in their use by all members of the family, and to a lesser extent in good hygiene practices such as handwashing.
Most of this report focuses on the achievements from WASH I and WASH II areas (i.e. 177 upazilas funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation).