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A snapshot of the case studies on good hygiene promotion: discover what you would like to read.

The case studies on good hygiene promotion are divided into different approaches:

Keynote papers

1 From Semmelweis to Global Handwashing Day: What’s the latest on hygiene promotion?

Dr Valerie Curtis, The Hygiene Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
A presentation of the latest information and data from epidemiologists and behaviour change scientists about hygiene behaviour change.

2 Coming into its own: Hygiene promotion for development

Dr Christine Sijbesma, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
An overview of the benefits of improved hygiene for development and analysis of approaches taken in hygiene promotion programmes to answer the question: what can or should NGOs do?

3 Hygiene promotion in South Asia: Progress, challenges and emerging issues

Andy Peal
An overview of hygiene and behaviour change approaches and experiences in the sector, with focus on South Asia.

The case studies

Community-based approaches

1 Volunteering for water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour improvements
Timor-Leste national community health programme

Heather Moran, BESIK (Bee Saneamentu no Ijene iha Komunidade)

  • The government policy on health promotion – utilising volunteer Family Health Promoters to extend the reach of behaviour change initiatives
  • Family Health Promoters as hygiene role models
  • Making and marketing local herbal soaps to increase demand for soap
  • How to support a cadre of volunteer health promoters

2 Stories from rural hygiene promoters in Vanuatu: PHAST, tippy taps and working with men and women
Vanuatu lessons learned from the islands of Tanna and Santo

Gabrielle Halcrow and Joanne Crawford, International Women’s Development Agency; Jocelyn Loughman, World Vision Vanuatu

  • A local adaptation of PHAST (Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation), and the development of community action plans
  • Climbing the ‘Handwashing Ladder’ and the use of Tippy Taps
  • Working with women and men to promote hygiene

3 Beyond tippy-taps: The role of enabling products in scaling up and sustaining handwashing
International and Vietnam design study

Jacqueline Devine, Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project, Water and Sanitation Program

  • Enabling factors improving opportunity for handwashing initiatives as well as motivation
  • Development of handwashing stations and tippy-taps for convenient access to water and soap
  • Case study from Vietnam on rural handwashing stations

4 Tugeda Uime Waka for Helti Komuniti (together we work for healthy communities)
Solomon Islands remote rural communities

Sarah Davies and Donna Webb, Australian Red Cross

  • Use of PHAST, particularly community action planning
  • Success and challenges in the implementation of PHAST – participation of women, incentivising and training volunteers
  • Impact of hygiene promotion on local level conflicts

5 Community health club approach: Case study of Katakwi in Uganda
Uganda rural communities and displaced people’scamps

Otai John Justin, Ministry of Health, Environmental Health Division

  • Multi-purpose clubs which have a hygiene component
  • Health clubs integrate hygiene, sanitation, social activities and income generation
  • Assessment of some results

6 Contributions of Village WASH Committee in breaking the cycle of unhygienic behaviours in rural Bangladesh
Bangladesh 39,000 rural communities and small towns

Babar Kabir, BRAC

  • Hygiene promotion through Village WASH Committees: needs assessment, local planning, roles of women
  • Hygiene promotion as the “backbone” of the WASH program

7 The Role of Imams and different institutions in hygiene promotion of BRAC WASH programme
Bangladesh mobilization in large-scale program

Babar Kabir, BRAC
Three communication aspects of hygiene promotion:

  • Specificially for men, series of talks by religious leaders on hygiene, sanitation and the position of women
  • School hygiene promotion (including menstrual education in secondary schools)
  • Promotion of hygiene through folk media

8 Participatory community hygiene education in Dhaka slums: DSK experience
Bangladesh large-scale programme in urban slums

Ranajit Das, Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK)

  • Participatory design and assessment with community groups in informal slum neighbourhoods
  • 6-step implementation programme using many community channels
  • Evaluation study of behavioural change through observations as well as questionnaires

9 The practice of handwashing
Bangladesh large-scale project rural and towns

Laboni Shabnam, Dhaka Ahsania Mission, SSARA project

  • Large scale mobilization for handwashing among 1.5 million people, 300 schools, markets, food shops
  • Post-assessment of handwashing practice before eating and after defecation
  • Recommendations for future actions

10 Hygiene Improvement Project: Why WASH Matters
Ethiopia,Kenya, Uganda,Tanzania

Renuka Bery, Julia Rosenbaum, Eleonore Seumo, Hygiene Improvement Project/Academy for Educational Development and Elizabeth Younger, Hygiene Improvement Project/ Manoff Group

  • Hygiene for people living with HIV or AIDS and their families
  • Why WASH needs to be fully integrated in existing HIV/AIDS programmes
  • Trials of improved practice: negotiating with families to improve hygiene behaviour
  • Small do-able actions: easy steps for behavioural change

11 Menstrual hygiene: Breaking the silence
Bangladesh national

Rokeya Ahmed, WaterAid Bangladesh

  • How menstrual hygiene programming was started with partner organizations in Bangladesh
  • Development of IEC materials and design modifications of toilets

12 Freedom of mobility: Experiences from villages in the states of Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh India
India rural communities

Maria Fernandes, WaterAid in India

  • Survey results related to menstruation and menstrual hygiene, knowledge and practice
  • Local best practices in the promotion, production, distribution and sale of sanitary napkins in rural areas
  • Costs and micro-credit for production by women

13 Hygiene promotion for men: Challenges & experiences from Nepal
Nepal rural and isolated communities

Ingeborg Krukkert, Carmen da Silva Wells, IRC and Yubraj Shrestha, Mangal Dash Duwal, Nepal Water for Health (NEWAH)

  • Why men should be involved in hygiene promotion
  • Encouraging men’s responsibility in hygiene improvements with a multi-step strategy and participatory training
  • Need for effective field support for rural staff

14 Journey towards changing behaviour: Evolution of hygiene education in Bangladesh
Bangladesh review of hygiene programmes from 1970s to 2008

Rokeya Ahmed, WaterAid Bangladesh

  • Review of main hygiene programmes in Bangladesh (SAFER, SOCMOB, IPE-CTLS, SHEWA and so on) over the past 3 decades
  • Shifting from hygiene education to hygiene promotion
  • Details of strategies and tools of the programmes are shown in annexes
  • Challenge of coordination among NGOs

15 Thirty-five years of searching for answers to rural sanitation and hygiene in Bhutan
Bhutan reflections on national programme

John Collett, SNV Bhutan

  • Bhutan’s achievements in water and sanitation over past 35 years
  • Challenges in achieving desired impacts, given continuing high mortality and morbidity
  • Importance of hygiene behaviours and promotion and suggestions on programme management

Campaign approaches

16 Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia
Indonesia national level programme

Ida Rafiqah and Isabel Blackett, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), World Bank

  • The role of the private sector in the partnership
  • How to link private sector with government agencies for handwashing promotion
  • Campaign materials for partners to use to promote handwashing

17 The development of an entertainment education programme to promote handwashing with soap among primary school children in Vietnam
Vietnam national campaign and 512 schools

Nga Kim Nguyen, The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), World Bank

  • Development of a national handwashing campaign using mass media and interpersonal communication channels
  • How to conduct formative research for school children
  • School-based interpersonal communication activities to complement a national campaign
  • Details of research and assessments

18 Designing evidence-based communications programmes to promote handwashing with soap in Vietnam
Vietnam campaign targeting mothers

Nga Kim Nguyen, The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), World Bank

  • Developing handwashing campaign for mothers, integrating mass media and interpersonal communications
  • Practical advice on management, consumer research and pre-testing
  • How to incorporate research findings into the design of social marketing campaigns

19 Global Handwashing Day and beyond
International with examples from individual countries

Ann Thomas, UNICEF

  • What helped to make the Global Handwashing Day (GHD) a success
  • How to improve public-private partnerships
  • Establishing the differences between advocacy, education and behaviour change
  • Harnessing the momentum of GHD to achieve longer-term success

Focus on schools and children

20 Student-led hygiene promotion and empowerment in rural schools in the Western Pacific: A photo story
Fiji,Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands rural schools

Christian Nielsen, Live and Learn Environmental Education

  • Photos illustrating participatory techniques to facilitate active learning on topics relating to good hygiene behaviour

21 Who is responsible for soap in Pakistani school toilets?
Pakistan urban schools

Syed Ayub Qutub, Pakistan Institute for Environment-Development Action Research (PIEDAR)

  • Study of handwashing, toilet use and maintenance of school facilities
  • Use of triangulated tools to study handwashing
  • Highlights importance of committed school administration and management

22 Real involvement, real participation
Papua New Guinea rural schools

Miriam Layton and Steve Layton, ATprojects

  • Breaking down the stigma surrounding girls’ monthly menstruation
  • Use of Knowledge Sharing Workshops to enable end-users (girl students) to develop products to meet their needs
  • Development of a simple low-cost washing facility to enable girls to practice menstrual hygiene in rural schools

23 A strong foundation: Revising Cambodia’s National School Health Curriculum to prevent and control intestinal worms
Cambodia national school curriculum development

Leng Wannak and Aminuzzaman Talukder, Helen Keller International
– Cambodia, Pen Saroeun, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (School Health Department) , Kim Koporc, Children Without Worms

  • The process and findings from a curriculum review and situation analysis
  • Survey revealing levels of knowledge about preventing worms among school children and teachers
  • Recommendations on management and coordination in the national programme

24 Jakarta’s impoverished kids lesson series: 10 take-home hygiene messages
Indonesia urban slums of Jakarta

Mindy Weimer, Yayasan Tirta Lestari and Mita Sirait, WatSan Action

  • Non-formal education for very poor children 8-12 years
  • A series of 10 lessons on personal and household hygiene, with questions and activities

25 Youth spearheading hygiene and environmental awareness: Kiambu Experience
Kenya, Nairobislum area

Ruth N. Nzomo, Maji na Ufanisi (MnU)

  • Mobilizing youth and organizing youth club, children’s club
  • Participatory training and planning with PHAST in inner-city Nairobi

Research and monitoring

26 Beyond traditional KAP Surveys: Need for addressing other determinants of behavioral change for more effective hygiene promotion
Pakistan Swat district

Mohammad Riaz, Mercy Corps, and Farooq Khan, North West Development Associates

  • Schools and child-to-child programme
  • Need to learn about pre-disposing and enabling factors for adequate planning

27 Measuring hand washing behaviour: Methodological and validity issues
Bangladesh study of handwashing practices in rural areas

Lisa Danquah, University of Southampton, UK

  • Research that compares the accuracy of tools for measuring handwashing practices (observation, spot-checks, self-reporting, demonstration)
  • Self-reporting about personal behaviours is less useful than other tools

28 A study on personal and home hygiene in flood prone communities in the Philippines
Philippines Hygiene practices in flood prone communities in 2 provinces

Lyn Capistrano, Philippines Center for Water and Sanitation

  • Case studies of existing positive hygiene practices that can be built upon in developing hygiene programmes
  • Many practices are borne from necessity, context specific in difficult environmental circumstances
  • Hygiene including aspects related to emotional and spiritual health

29 Assessment of hygiene communication plan in the aftermath of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan
Pakistan Isolated area of 2005 earthquake

Farooq Khan, Rabia Syed, North West Development Associates and Rutger Verkerk and Deirdre Casella, IRC

  • Assessment, one year after a major earthquake, of hygiene promotion activities and products provided
  • What was the assessment strategy and the specially adapted tools
  • Detailed recommendations for hygiene promotion and products in emergency situations

30 Assessing and addressing hygiene issues of internally displaced persons of Swat, Buner and Dir
Pakistan Displaced people in North West Frontier Province

Syed Shah Nasir Khisro, Integrated Rural Support Program

  • Hygiene promotion with water and sanitation for internally displaced people
  • 5-step process to develop hygiene interventions in difficult circumstances
  • Includes attention for menstrual hygiene among women

31 Stages of hygiene monitoring: An operational experience from Nepal
Nepal programme monitoring

Om Gautam, Barat Adhikari, Kabir Rajbhandari, Oliver Jones, WaterAid Nepal

  • Monitoring experiences of WaterAid Nepal and its partners
  • 7-step monitoring process is described
  • Examples and learnings are provided

Other case studies with major monitoring or research components are: 8, 9, 17, 18, 21 and 23.


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